[repository] Restructure repository and tests
- This MR removes unused test cases and separates stronger between tests and example cases. Test cases and examples are classified as `monolithic` or `partitioned`. - The tests have been adapted such that the build target `build_tests` builds all necessary executables. This means on can now run `make build_tests` from `build-cmake` and afterwards run all tests `ctest` to test the adapter. - The CI has been adapted to make use of the new build process for tests. For more information check out merge request: !18
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