Commit 51396c6b authored by Timo Koch's avatar Timo Koch
Browse files

[io] Add basic version of the fmt library for string formatting

The library implements format which is conforming with std::format
which will be available with C++20. The library supports Python
style string formatting.
parent 2aef2ecc
......@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ include(DuneMacros)
# start a dune project with information from dune.module
dune_project()
dune_enable_all_packages()
dune_enable_all_packages(MODULE_LIBRARIES dumux_fmt)
# enforce C++-17
dune_require_cxx_standard(MODULE "DuMuX" VERSION 17)
......
add_subdirectory(grid)
add_subdirectory(format)
add_subdirectory(vtk)
add_subdirectory(xml)
......
// -*- mode: C++; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4 -*-
// vi: set et ts=4 sw=4 sts=4:
/*****************************************************************************
* See the file COPYING for full copying permissions. *
* *
* This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify *
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by *
* the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or *
* (at your option) any later version. *
* *
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, *
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of *
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the *
* GNU General Public License for more details. *
* *
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License *
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. *
*****************************************************************************/
/*!
* \file
* \ingroup InputOutput
* \brief Formatting based on the fmt-library which implements std::format of C++20
*/
#ifndef DUMUX_IO_FORMAT_HH
#define DUMUX_IO_FORMAT_HH
#include <dumux/io/format/fmt/format.h>
#include <dumux/io/format/fmt/ranges.h>
namespace Dumux::Fmt {
using fmt::format;
using fmt::format_to;
using fmt::format_to_n;
using fmt::formatted_size;
} // end namespace Dumux::Fmt
#endif
dune_library_add_sources(dumux_fmt SOURCES format.cc)
file(GLOB FMT_HEADERS *.h)
install(FILES ${FMT_HEADERS}
DESTINATION ${CMAKE_INSTALL_INCLUDEDIR}/dumux/io/format/fmt)
Copyright (c) 2012 - present, Victor Zverovich
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
--- Optional exception to the license ---
As an exception, if, as a result of your compiling your source code, portions
of this Software are embedded into a machine-executable object form of such
source code, you may redistribute such embedded portions in such object form
without including the above copyright and permission notices.
{fmt}
=====
.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/fmtlib/fmt.png?branch=master
:target: https://travis-ci.org/fmtlib/fmt
.. image:: https://ci.appveyor.com/api/projects/status/ehjkiefde6gucy1v
:target: https://ci.appveyor.com/project/vitaut/fmt
.. image:: https://oss-fuzz-build-logs.storage.googleapis.com/badges/fmt.svg
:alt: fmt is continuously fuzzed at oss-fuzz
:target: https://bugs.chromium.org/p/oss-fuzz/issues/list?\
colspec=ID%20Type%20Component%20Status%20Proj%20Reported%20Owner%20\
Summary&q=proj%3Dfmt&can=1
.. image:: https://img.shields.io/badge/stackoverflow-fmt-blue.svg
:alt: Ask questions at StackOverflow with the tag fmt
:target: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/fmt
**{fmt}** is an open-source formatting library providing a fast and safe
alternative to C stdio and C++ iostreams.
If you like this project, please consider donating to BYSOL,
an initiative to help victims of political repressions in Belarus:
https://www.facebook.com/donate/759400044849707/108388587646909/.
`Documentation <https://fmt.dev>`__
Q&A: ask questions on `StackOverflow with the tag fmt
<https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/fmt>`_.
Try {fmt} in `Compiler Explorer <https://godbolt.org/z/Eq5763>`_.
Features
--------
* Simple `format API <https://fmt.dev/latest/api.html>`_ with positional arguments
for localization
* Implementation of `C++20 std::format
<https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/utility/format>`__
* `Format string syntax <https://fmt.dev/latest/syntax.html>`_ similar to Python's
`format <https://docs.python.org/3/library/stdtypes.html#str.format>`_
* Fast IEEE 754 floating-point formatter with correct rounding, shortness and
round-trip guarantees
* Safe `printf implementation
<https://fmt.dev/latest/api.html#printf-formatting>`_ including the POSIX
extension for positional arguments
* Extensibility: `support for user-defined types
<https://fmt.dev/latest/api.html#formatting-user-defined-types>`_
* High performance: faster than common standard library implementations of
``(s)printf``, iostreams, ``to_string`` and ``to_chars``, see `Speed tests`_
and `Converting a hundred million integers to strings per second
<http://www.zverovich.net/2020/06/13/fast-int-to-string-revisited.html>`_
* Small code size both in terms of source code with the minimum configuration
consisting of just three files, ``core.h``, ``format.h`` and ``format-inl.h``,
and compiled code; see `Compile time and code bloat`_
* Reliability: the library has an extensive set of `tests
<https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/tree/master/test>`_ and is `continuously fuzzed
<https://bugs.chromium.org/p/oss-fuzz/issues/list?colspec=ID%20Type%20
Component%20Status%20Proj%20Reported%20Owner%20Summary&q=proj%3Dfmt&can=1>`_
* Safety: the library is fully type safe, errors in format strings can be
reported at compile time, automatic memory management prevents buffer overflow
errors
* Ease of use: small self-contained code base, no external dependencies,
permissive MIT `license
<https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/blob/master/LICENSE.rst>`_
* `Portability <https://fmt.dev/latest/index.html#portability>`_ with
consistent output across platforms and support for older compilers
* Clean warning-free codebase even on high warning levels such as
``-Wall -Wextra -pedantic``
* Locale-independence by default
* Optional header-only configuration enabled with the ``FMT_HEADER_ONLY`` macro
See the `documentation <https://fmt.dev>`_ for more details.
Examples
--------
**Print to stdout** (`run <https://godbolt.org/z/Tevcjh>`_)
.. code:: c++
#include <fmt/core.h>
int main() {
fmt::print("Hello, world!\n");
}
**Format a string** (`run <https://godbolt.org/z/oK8h33>`_)
.. code:: c++
std::string s = fmt::format("The answer is {}.", 42);
// s == "The answer is 42."
**Format a string using positional arguments** (`run <https://godbolt.org/z/Yn7Txe>`_)
.. code:: c++
std::string s = fmt::format("I'd rather be {1} than {0}.", "right", "happy");
// s == "I'd rather be happy than right."
**Print chrono durations** (`run <https://godbolt.org/z/K8s4Mc>`_)
.. code:: c++
#include <fmt/chrono.h>
int main() {
using namespace std::literals::chrono_literals;
fmt::print("Default format: {} {}\n", 42s, 100ms);
fmt::print("strftime-like format: {:%H:%M:%S}\n", 3h + 15min + 30s);
}
Output::
Default format: 42s 100ms
strftime-like format: 03:15:30
**Print a container** (`run <https://godbolt.org/z/MjsY7c>`_)
.. code:: c++
#include <vector>
#include <fmt/ranges.h>
int main() {
std::vector<int> v = {1, 2, 3};
fmt::print("{}\n", v);
}
Output::
{1, 2, 3}
**Check a format string at compile time**
.. code:: c++
std::string s = fmt::format(FMT_STRING("{:d}"), "don't panic");
This gives a compile-time error because ``d`` is an invalid format specifier for
a string.
**Write a file from a single thread**
.. code:: c++
#include <fmt/os.h>
int main() {
auto out = fmt::output_file("guide.txt");
out.print("Don't {}", "Panic");
}
This can be `5 to 9 times faster than fprintf
<http://www.zverovich.net/2020/08/04/optimal-file-buffer-size.html>`_.
**Print with colors and text styles**
.. code:: c++
#include <fmt/color.h>
int main() {
fmt::print(fg(fmt::color::crimson) | fmt::emphasis::bold,
"Hello, {}!\n", "world");
fmt::print(fg(fmt::color::floral_white) | bg(fmt::color::slate_gray) |
fmt::emphasis::underline, "Hello, {}!\n", "мир");
fmt::print(fg(fmt::color::steel_blue) | fmt::emphasis::italic,
"Hello, {}!\n", "世界");
}
Output on a modern terminal:
.. image:: https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/
576385/88485597-d312f600-cf2b-11ea-9cbe-61f535a86e28.png
Benchmarks
----------
Speed tests
~~~~~~~~~~~
================= ============= ===========
Library Method Run Time, s
================= ============= ===========
libc printf 1.04
libc++ std::ostream 3.05
{fmt} 6.1.1 fmt::print 0.75
Boost Format 1.67 boost::format 7.24
Folly Format folly::format 2.23
================= ============= ===========
{fmt} is the fastest of the benchmarked methods, ~35% faster than ``printf``.
The above results were generated by building ``tinyformat_test.cpp`` on macOS
10.14.6 with ``clang++ -O3 -DNDEBUG -DSPEED_TEST -DHAVE_FORMAT``, and taking the
best of three runs. In the test, the format string ``"%0.10f:%04d:%+g:%s:%p:%c:%%\n"``
or equivalent is filled 2,000,000 times with output sent to ``/dev/null``; for
further details refer to the `source
<https://github.com/fmtlib/format-benchmark/blob/master/tinyformat_test.cpp>`_.
{fmt} is up to 20-30x faster than ``std::ostringstream`` and ``sprintf`` on
floating-point formatting (`dtoa-benchmark <https://github.com/fmtlib/dtoa-benchmark>`_)
and faster than `double-conversion <https://github.com/google/double-conversion>`_ and
`ryu <https://github.com/ulfjack/ryu>`_:
.. image:: https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/576385/
95684665-11719600-0ba8-11eb-8e5b-972ff4e49428.png
:target: https://fmt.dev/unknown_mac64_clang12.0.html
Compile time and code bloat
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The script `bloat-test.py
<https://github.com/fmtlib/format-benchmark/blob/master/bloat-test.py>`_
from `format-benchmark <https://github.com/fmtlib/format-benchmark>`_
tests compile time and code bloat for nontrivial projects.
It generates 100 translation units and uses ``printf()`` or its alternative
five times in each to simulate a medium sized project. The resulting
executable size and compile time (Apple LLVM version 8.1.0 (clang-802.0.42),
macOS Sierra, best of three) is shown in the following tables.
**Optimized build (-O3)**
============= =============== ==================== ==================
Method Compile Time, s Executable size, KiB Stripped size, KiB
============= =============== ==================== ==================
printf 2.6 29 26
printf+string 16.4 29 26
iostreams 31.1 59 55
{fmt} 19.0 37 34
Boost Format 91.9 226 203
Folly Format 115.7 101 88
============= =============== ==================== ==================
As you can see, {fmt} has 60% less overhead in terms of resulting binary code
size compared to iostreams and comes pretty close to ``printf``. Boost Format
and Folly Format have the largest overheads.
``printf+string`` is the same as ``printf`` but with extra ``<string>``
include to measure the overhead of the latter.
**Non-optimized build**
============= =============== ==================== ==================
Method Compile Time, s Executable size, KiB Stripped size, KiB
============= =============== ==================== ==================
printf 2.2 33 30
printf+string 16.0 33 30
iostreams 28.3 56 52
{fmt} 18.2 59 50
Boost Format 54.1 365 303
Folly Format 79.9 445 430
============= =============== ==================== ==================
``libc``, ``lib(std)c++`` and ``libfmt`` are all linked as shared libraries to
compare formatting function overhead only. Boost Format is a
header-only library so it doesn't provide any linkage options.
Running the tests
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Please refer to `Building the library`__ for the instructions on how to build
the library and run the unit tests.
__ https://fmt.dev/latest/usage.html#building-the-library
Benchmarks reside in a separate repository,
`format-benchmarks <https://github.com/fmtlib/format-benchmark>`_,
so to run the benchmarks you first need to clone this repository and
generate Makefiles with CMake::
$ git clone --recursive https://github.com/fmtlib/format-benchmark.git
$ cd format-benchmark
$ cmake .
Then you can run the speed test::
$ make speed-test
or the bloat test::
$ make bloat-test
Projects using this library
---------------------------
* `0 A.D. <https://play0ad.com/>`_: a free, open-source, cross-platform
real-time strategy game
* `AMPL/MP <https://github.com/ampl/mp>`_:
an open-source library for mathematical programming
* `Aseprite <https://github.com/aseprite/aseprite>`_:
animated sprite editor & pixel art tool
* `AvioBook <https://www.aviobook.aero/en>`_: a comprehensive aircraft
operations suite
* `Blizzard Battle.net <https://battle.net/>`_: an online gaming platform
* `Celestia <https://celestia.space/>`_: real-time 3D visualization of space
* `Ceph <https://ceph.com/>`_: a scalable distributed storage system
* `ccache <https://ccache.dev/>`_: a compiler cache
* `ClickHouse <https://github.com/ClickHouse/ClickHouse>`_: analytical database
management system
* `CUAUV <http://cuauv.org/>`_: Cornell University's autonomous underwater
vehicle
* `Drake <https://drake.mit.edu/>`_: a planning, control, and analysis toolbox
for nonlinear dynamical systems (MIT)
* `Envoy <https://lyft.github.io/envoy/>`_: C++ L7 proxy and communication bus
(Lyft)
* `FiveM <https://fivem.net/>`_: a modification framework for GTA V
* `Folly <https://github.com/facebook/folly>`_: Facebook open-source library
* `HarpyWar/pvpgn <https://github.com/pvpgn/pvpgn-server>`_:
Player vs Player Gaming Network with tweaks
* `KBEngine <https://github.com/kbengine/kbengine>`_: an open-source MMOG server
engine
* `Keypirinha <https://keypirinha.com/>`_: a semantic launcher for Windows
* `Kodi <https://kodi.tv/>`_ (formerly xbmc): home theater software
* `Knuth <https://kth.cash/>`_: high-performance Bitcoin full-node
* `Microsoft Verona <https://github.com/microsoft/verona>`_:
research programming language for concurrent ownership
* `MongoDB <https://mongodb.com/>`_: distributed document database
* `MongoDB Smasher <https://github.com/duckie/mongo_smasher>`_: a small tool to
generate randomized datasets
* `OpenSpace <https://openspaceproject.com/>`_: an open-source
astrovisualization framework
* `PenUltima Online (POL) <https://www.polserver.com/>`_:
an MMO server, compatible with most Ultima Online clients
* `PyTorch <https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch>`_: an open-source machine
learning library
* `quasardb <https://www.quasardb.net/>`_: a distributed, high-performance,
associative database
* `Quill <https://github.com/odygrd/quill>`_: asynchronous low-latency logging library
* `QKW <https://github.com/ravijanjam/qkw>`_: generalizing aliasing to simplify
navigation, and executing complex multi-line terminal command sequences
* `redis-cerberus <https://github.com/HunanTV/redis-cerberus>`_: a Redis cluster
proxy
* `redpanda <https://vectorized.io/redpanda>`_: a 10x faster Kafka® replacement
for mission critical systems written in C++
* `rpclib <http://rpclib.net/>`_: a modern C++ msgpack-RPC server and client
library
* `Salesforce Analytics Cloud
<https://www.salesforce.com/analytics-cloud/overview/>`_:
business intelligence software
* `Scylla <https://www.scylladb.com/>`_: a Cassandra-compatible NoSQL data store
that can handle 1 million transactions per second on a single server
* `Seastar <http://www.seastar-project.org/>`_: an advanced, open-source C++
framework for high-performance server applications on modern hardware
* `spdlog <https://github.com/gabime/spdlog>`_: super fast C++ logging library
* `Stellar <https://www.stellar.org/>`_: financial platform
* `Touch Surgery <https://www.touchsurgery.com/>`_: surgery simulator
* `TrinityCore <https://github.com/TrinityCore/TrinityCore>`_: open-source
MMORPG framework
* `Windows Terminal <https://github.com/microsoft/terminal>`_: the new Windows
terminal
`More... <https://github.com/search?q=fmtlib&type=Code>`_
If you are aware of other projects using this library, please let me know
by `email <mailto:victor.zverovich@gmail.com>`_ or by submitting an
`issue <https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/issues>`_.
Motivation
----------
So why yet another formatting library?
There are plenty of methods for doing this task, from standard ones like
the printf family of function and iostreams to Boost Format and FastFormat
libraries. The reason for creating a new library is that every existing
solution that I found either had serious issues or didn't provide
all the features I needed.
printf
~~~~~~
The good thing about ``printf`` is that it is pretty fast and readily available
being a part of the C standard library. The main drawback is that it
doesn't support user-defined types. ``printf`` also has safety issues although
they are somewhat mitigated with `__attribute__ ((format (printf, ...))
<https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Function-Attributes.html>`_ in GCC.
There is a POSIX extension that adds positional arguments required for
`i18n <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization>`_
to ``printf`` but it is not a part of C99 and may not be available on some
platforms.
iostreams
~~~~~~~~~
The main issue with iostreams is best illustrated with an example:
.. code:: c++
std::cout << std::setprecision(2) << std::fixed << 1.23456 << "\n";
which is a lot of typing compared to printf:
.. code:: c++
printf("%.2f\n", 1.23456);
Matthew Wilson, the author of FastFormat, called this "chevron hell". iostreams
don't support positional arguments by design.
The good part is that iostreams support user-defined types and are safe although
error handling is awkward.
Boost Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is a very powerful library which supports both ``printf``-like format
strings and positional arguments. Its main drawback is performance. According to
various, benchmarks it is much slower than other methods considered here. Boost
Format also has excessive build times and severe code bloat issues (see
`Benchmarks`_).
FastFormat
~~~~~~~~~~
This is an interesting library which is fast, safe and has positional arguments.
However, it has significant limitations, citing its author:
Three features that have no hope of being accommodated within the
current design are:
* Leading zeros (or any other non-space padding)
* Octal/hexadecimal encoding
* Runtime width/alignment specification
It is also quite big and has a heavy dependency, STLSoft, which might be too
restrictive for using it in some projects.
Boost Spirit.Karma
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is not really a formatting library but I decided to include it here for
completeness. As iostreams, it suffers from the problem of mixing verbatim text
with arguments. The library is pretty fast, but slower on integer formatting
than ``fmt::format_to`` with format string compilation on Karma's own benchmark,
see `Converting a hundred million integers to strings per second
<http://www.zverovich.net/2020/06/13/fast-int-to-string-revisited.html>`_.
License
-------
{fmt} is distributed under the MIT `license
<https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/blob/master/LICENSE.rst>`_.
Documentation License
---------------------
The `Format String Syntax <https://fmt.dev/latest/syntax.html>`_
section in the documentation is based on the one from Python `string module
documentation <https://docs.python.org/3/library/string.html#module-string>`_.
For this reason the documentation is distributed under the Python Software
Foundation license available in `doc/python-license.txt
<https://raw.github.com/fmtlib/fmt/master/doc/python-license.txt>`_.
It only applies if you distribute the documentation of {fmt}.
Maintainers
-----------
The {fmt} library is maintained by Victor Zverovich (`vitaut
<https://github.com/vitaut>`_) and Jonathan Müller (`foonathan
<https://github.com/foonathan>`_) with contributions from many other people.
See `Contributors <https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/graphs/contributors>`_ and
`Releases <https://github.com/fmtlib/fmt/releases>`_ for some of the names.
Let us know if your contribution is not listed or mentioned incorrectly and
we'll make it right.
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// Formatting library for C++
//
// Copyright (c) 2012 - 2016, Victor Zverovich
// All rights reserved.
//
// For the license information refer to format.h.
#include "format-inl.h"
FMT_BEGIN_NAMESPACE
namespace detail {
template <typename T>
int format_float(char* buf, std::size_t size, const char* format, int precision,
T value) {
#ifdef FMT_FUZZ
if (precision > 100000)
throw std::runtime_error(
"fuzz mode - avoid large allocation inside snprintf");
#endif
// Suppress the warning about nonliteral format string.
int (*snprintf_ptr)(char*, size_t, const char*, ...) = FMT_SNPRINTF;
return precision < 0 ? snprintf_ptr(buf, size, format, value)
: snprintf_ptr(buf, size, format, precision, value);
}
} // namespace detail
template struct FMT_INSTANTIATION_DEF_API detail::basic_data<void>;
// Workaround a bug in MSVC2013 that prevents instantiation of format_float.
int (*instantiate_format_float)(double, int, detail::float_specs,
detail::buffer<char>&) = detail::format_float;